Kratom – literature

dy, C., Boyer, E.W. (2008): Opioid receptors and legal highs: Salvia divinorum and Kratom.

Clinical Technology, 46, 146-152.

Bayard, V., Chamorro, F., Motta, J., Hollenberg, N.K. (2007) Does flavanol intake influence mortality from nitric oxide-dependent processes? Ischemic heart disease, stroke, diabetes mellitus, and cancer in panama.

Int J Med Sci. 27, 53-8.

Burkhill, I.H. (1935): A Dictionary of the Economic Products of the Malay Peninsula.

Vol II (1-2), 1966 reprint. Ministry of Agriculture and Co-operatives, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 1508.

Dhawan, B.N., Cesselin, F., Raghubir, R., Reisine, T., Bradley, P.B., Portoghese, P.S., Hamon, M.(1996): International Union of Pharmacology. XII. Classification of opioid receptors.

Pharmacol. Rev. 48, 567–592.

Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA), Kratom (Mitragyna Speciosa) – Special Intelligence Brief-, Microgram Bulleting, No 3, 30-31.

Field, E.J. (1921): Mitragynine and mitraversine, two new alkaloids from species ofMitragyne.

Transaction of the Chemical Society. 119, 887-891.

Grewal, K.S. (1932): Observations on the pharmacology of mitragynine.

J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 46, 251–271.

Holmes, E.M. (1895): Some medical products from the Straits settleent.

The Pharmaceutical Journal. 54, 1095-1096.

Hooper, D. (1907).

J. Pharm. 78, 453.

Jansen, K.L.R., Prast, C.J. (1988): Ethnopharmacology of Kratom and the MitragynaAlkaloids.

Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 23, 115-119.

K.B. Chang, C., Pakiam, R.A., Rahim (2005) Psychoactive plant abuse: the identification of mitragyinine in ketum and in ketum preparation,

Bulletin on Narcotics, Vol. LVII, Nos. 1 and 2, 249-256.

Land der Träume a,, Bericht vom 13.08.2009, abgerufen am 15.08.2009.

Land der Träume b,, Bericht vom 11.11.2007, abgerufen am 15.08.2009.

Macko, E., Weisbach, J.A., Douglas, B. (1972): Some observations on pharmacology of mitragynine.

Arch Int Pharmacodyn Ther. 198(1), 145-61.

Matsumoto, K., Mizowaki, M., Suchitra, T., Murakami, Y., Takayama, H., Sakai, S., Aimi, N., Watanabe, H. (1996a): Antinocceptive action of mitragynine in mice: evidence fort he involvment of supraspinal opioid receptors.

Life Sci. 59, 1149.

Matsumoto, K., Mizowaki, M., Suchitra, T., Murakami, Y., Takayama, H., Sakai, S., Aimi, N., Watanabe, H. (1996b): Central antinociceptive effects of mitragynine in mice: contribution of descending noradrenergic and serotonergic systems.

European Journal of Pharmocology. 317, 75-81.

Matsumoto, K., Horie, S., Ishikawa, H., Takayama, H., Aimi, N., Ponglux, D., Watanabe, K. (2004): Antinociceptive effect of 7-hydroxymitragynine in mice: Discovery of an orally active opioid analgesic from the Thai medicinal herb Mitragyna speciosa.

Life Sciences. 74, 2143-2155.

National Drugs and Poisons Schedule Committee (NDPSC), Edited Minutes of Meeting 39, October 2003, 80-82,, abgerufen am 16.08.2009.

National Drugs and Poisons Schedule Committee (Australia): HYPERLINK „““Edited Minutes of Meeting 37 – February 2003“: February 2003; 108-110.

National Drugs and Poisons Schedule Committee (Australia): HYPERLINK „““Edited Minutes of Meeting 38 – June 2003“: June 2003; 96-98.

National Drugs and Poisons Schedule Committee (Australia): HYPERLINK „““Edited Minutes of Meeting 39 – October 2003“: October 2003; 80-82.

National Drugs and Poisons Schedule Committee (Australia): HYPERLINK „““Edited Minutes of Meeting 40 – February 2004“: February 2004; 103-105.

Norakarnphadung, P. (1966): Pramuan Khuamru Ruang Yaseptit Hai Thot.

Thanyarak Hospital, Bangkok. 16-20.

Office of the Narcotics Control Board (ONCB), Annual Report 2007,, abgerufen am 16.08.2009.

Ponglux, D., Wongseripipatana, S., Takayama, H., Kikuchi, M., Kurihara, M., Kitajima, M., Aimi, N., Sakai, S. (1994): A new indole alkaloid, 7-α-hydroxy-7H-mitragynine, fromMitragyna speciosa in Thailand.

Plants Medica 60, 580-581.

Proudfit, H.K (1988): Pharmacologic evidence for the modulation of nociception by noradrenergic neurons.

Prog. Brain Res. 77,357.

Shellard, E.J.(1974): The alkaloids of Mitragyna with special reference to those ofMitragyna speciosa, Korth.

Bulletin of Narcotics, 26(2), 41-55.

Stuppner, H., Sturm, S., Geisen, G., Zillian, U., Konwalinka, G. (1993): A Differential Sensitivity of Oxindole Alkaloids to Normal and Leukemic Cell Lines.

Planta Med Supplement Issue. 52, 583.

Suwanlert, S. (1975): A Study of Kratom Eaters in Thailand.

Srithunya Hospital, Nondhaburi, Thailand. 21-27.

Takayama, H. (2004): Chemistry and Pharmacology of Analgesic Indole Alkaloids from the Rubiaceous Plant, Mitragyna speciosa.

Chem. Pharm. Bull. 52(8), 916-928.

Takayama, h., Ishikawa, H., Kurihara, M., Kitajima, M., Aimi, N., Ponglux, D., Koyama, F., Matsumoto, K., Moriyama, T., Yamamoto, L.Y., Watanabe, K., Murayama, T., Hoie, S. (2002): Studies on the synthesis and opioid agonistic activities of mytragine-related indole alkaloids: discovery of opioid agonistic structurally different from other opioid ligands.

Journal of Medical Chemistry. 45(9), 1949-1956.

The Star Online, ‚Kopi reggae‘ keeps transvestits up and going, 23.12.2008,

Thuan, L.C. (1957): Addiction to Mitragyna speciosa.

Proceeding of the Alumni Association, Malay. 10(4), 322-324.

Tsuchiya, S., Miyashita, S., Yamamoto, M., Horie, S., Sakai, S.I., Aimi, N., Takayama, H., Watanabe, K. (2002): Effect of mitragynine, derived from Thai folk medicine, on gastric acid secretion through opioid receptor in anesthetized rats.

European Journal of Pharmacology. 443(1-3), 185-188.

Yoga, S.S. (04.04.2005): How Ketum is Abused,

The Star Online.

Zacharias, D.E, Rosenstein, R.D., Jeffrey, E.A. (1964): The structure of mitragynine hydroiodide.

Acta Cryst. 18, 1039–1043

Zarembo, J.E., Douglas, B., Valenta, J., Weisbach, J.A. (1974): Metabolites of mitragynine.

J Pharm Sci. 63: 1407-1414.

Abbildung  SEQ Abbildung * ARABIC 1. Die chemische Strukturformel von Mitragynin. Mitragynin ist die Hauptkomponente der Alkaloidfraktion extrahiert aus Blättern des Baumes Mitragyna speciosa Korth.

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